The most widely used of these monitors is the Bispectral Index Scale (BIS). Another EEG-based depth of anaesthesia monitor is Entropy. The EEG analysed by these depth of anaesthesia monitors is collected from the forehead of the patient, therefore, rendering the methods vulnerable to confounding factors. One obvious confounding factor is the electromyographic (EMG) arousal caused by the frontal muscles. Also, different types of EEG arousal can produce changes in the numerical values of the depth of anaesthesia monitors without a change in the actual depth of anaesthesia, making the interpretation of depth of anaesthesia monitors very challenging for the anaesthesiologist. The aim of this doctoral thesis was to study the effect of EMG and EEG arousal on the numerical values of BIS and Entropy, and to investigate if an anaesthesiologist is able to detect EMG arousal visually on the anaesthesia monitor.
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