This research situates and contextualises self-promotion within two different but powerful forms of social relations, namely capitalism and gender. These social relations are understood as mutually connected and constructive, yet with a logic and modus operandi of their own. Self-promotion is one of the instances in which their effect is lived and experienced, as well as produced and challenged. The objective of the research, then, is to examine self-promotion as a specific site of the intersection of capitalism and gender.
To meet this objective, the research approaches self-promotion from two different but interconnected perspectives. First, the aim is to map the terrain that renders self-promotion possible, to understand how self-promotion becomes meaningful and intelligible. Second, the focus is on the self that is placed in the centre of processes of promotion, and specifically on what kind of self is brought into being through such processes.
The empirical location of the research is the field of work-related coaching in Finland. Coaching is closely related to the processes of self-promotion, as different forms of coaching usually share a preoccupation with the self and with becoming a "right kind of a person". Various coaching practices aim to empower the self in such a way that one gains recognition, advances or opportunities in the labour market as well as in personal life.
Employing the notion of frame the two research perspectives are formulated into two research questions by way of which the field of coaching is approached: How is self-promotion framed in coaching? How is the self framed in processes of promotion? The research material consists of coaches' interviews and of different kinds of textual material related to coaching, such as newspaper articles, web sites and self-help literature. The methods employed to analyse this material were qualitative, for instance thematic analysis of textual content and of the interviews.
The empirical part of the research begins with discussing coaching as work and examining the practices of coaching. Coaching is found to exemplify processes of the subjectification of work and to relate to new forms of the commodification of "life". It is also noted how notions of capacity, competence and potential are central to this kind of work - and how they connect to post-feminist tendencies. The research then continues by exploring the notions of change that are hardwired to the practices of coaching, particularly as coaching focuses on self-transformation - a transformation which paradoxically posits large scale changes beyond the reach of human agency, but simultaneously demands that the individual become the author of their own life. Hence coaching is a practice implicated in the process of individualisation that frames the self in a contradictory fashion.
The process of individualisation is then examined further by asking what kind of individual is brought into being in the processes of self-promotion as they take place in the practices of coaching. Even though the individual has a history of exclusion, what is important concerning the individual in coaching is a frame of inclusion - everyone must strive to become a self-promoting, self-transforming autonomous individual, the flipside of which is that anyone can also fail to achieve this status. This shift from exclusion to inclusion alerts to a shift not only in terms of the history of the individual, but also in terms of histories of gender and class.
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